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Vacuum Deposition Techniques and Tables

for thin film applications

The vacuum deposition techniques table lists the best suited methods, such as thermal evaporation, E-Beam evaporation or sputtering for a large number of materials. The list is sorted by material name. It also suggests the best thermal source, if applicable.
The table also lists useful information such as melting point, density, and temperatures for given vapor pressures. This list is useful to determine the optimum vacuum deposition technique, thermal source, and power supply requirements.


Deposition Techniques: Material names A-E

Deposition Techniques: Material names G-L

Deposition Techniques: Material names M-R

Deposition Techniques: Material names S-Z


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* influenced by composition
** Cr-plated rod or strip
***All metals alumina coated
C = carbon
Gr = graphite
Q = quartz
Incl = Inconel
VC = vitreous carbon
SS = stainless steel
Ex = excellent
G = good
F = fair
P = poor
S = sublimes
D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective
RF-R = reactive
RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective
DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective

Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Thermal Sources
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Aluminum Al 660   2.70 677 821 1010 Ex TiB2,W W W TiB2-BN, ZrB2, BN RF, DC Alloys and wets. Stranded W is best.
Aluminum Antimonide AlSb 1080   4.3 - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 1600   3.7 - - ~ 1300 - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 97   2.64 - - ~ 50 - Mo - - Gr RF -
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 ~1400 D 2.36 - - ~ 800 F - - - - RF n = 2.7
Aluminum, 2% Copper Al2%Cu 640   2.82 - - - - - - - - RF, DC Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 1291 S 2.88 410 490 700 P Mo, W, Ta - - Gr RF -
Aluminum Nitride AlN >2200 S 3.26 - - ~1750 F - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 2072   3.97 - - 1550 Ex W - W - RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films. n = 1.66
Aluminum Phosphide AlP 2000   2.42 - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum, 2% Silicon Al2%Si 640   2.69 - - 1010 - - - - TiB2-BN RF, DC Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 630 S 6.68 279 345 425 P Mo,*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta BN, C, Al2O3 RF, DC Toxic. Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 - - ~300 G Pt - Pt BN, Al2O3 RF-R Toxic. Decomposes on W. n = 2.09, 2.18, 2.35
Antimony Selenide Sb2Se3 611   - - - - - Ta - - C RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 550   4.64 - - ~200 G Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta Al2O3 - No decomposition. n=3.19, 4.06, 4.3
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 629   6.50 - - 600 - - - - C RF Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic As 817 S 5.73 107 150 210 P C - - Al2O3, BeO, VC - Toxic. Sublimes rapidly at low temperature.
Arsenic Oxide As2O3 312   3.74 - - - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 ~360   4.75 - - - - - - - Al2O3, Q RF -
Arsenic Sulfide As2S3 300   3.43 - - ~400 F Mo - - Al2O3, Q RF n = 2.4, 2.81, 3.02
Arsenic Telluride As2Te3 362   - - - - - Flash - - - - JVST. 1973;10:748.
Barium Ba 725   3.51 545 627 735 F W, Ta, Mo W W Metals RF Wets without alloying reacts with ceramics.
Barium Chloride BaCl2 963   3.92 - - ~650 - Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.73
Barium Fluoride BaF2 1355 S 4.89 - - ~700 G Mo - - - RF n = 1.47
Barium Oxide BaO 1918   5.72 - - ~1300 P Pt - Pt Al2O3 RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly. n = 1.98
Barium Sulfide BaS 1200   4.25 - - 1100 - Mo - - - RF n = 2.16
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 - D 6.02 - - - - - - - - RF Gives Ba. Co-evap. from 2 sources or sputter. n = 2.40
Beryllium Be 1278   1.85 710 878 1000 Ex W, Ta W W BeO, C, VC RF, DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Powder and oxides toxic. Evaporates easily.
Beryllium Carbide Be2C >2100 D 1.90 - - - - - - - - - -
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 405   1.90 - - ~150 - - - - - RF -
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - ~200 G - - - - - Toxic. n = <1.33
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2530   3.01 - - 1900 G - - W - RF, RF-R Toxic. No decomposition from E-beam guns. n=1.72
Bismuth Bi 271
9.80 330 410 520 Ex W, Mo, Ta W W Al2O3, VC DC, RF Toxic vapor. Resistivity high. No shorting of baskets.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - ~300 - - - - Gr RF n = 1.74
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 860   8.55 - - ~1400 P Pt - Pt - RF, RF-R Toxic vapor. n = 1.91
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 710 D 6.82 - - ~650 G - - - Gr, Q RF Co-evaporate from two sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - - - - - RF n = 1.34, 1.46
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 573   7.7 - - ~600 - W, Mo - - Gr, Q RF Co-evaporate from two sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 - D - - - - - - - - - RF Sputter or co-evaporate from two sources in 10-2 Torr oxygen.
Boron B 2300   2.34 1278 1548 1797 Ex C - - C, VC RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide B4C 2350   2.52 2500 2580 2650 Ex - - - - RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN ~3000 S 2.25 - - ~1600 P - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes under sputtering; reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide B2O3 ~450   1.81 - - ~1400 G Pt, Mo - - - - n = 1.48
Boron Sulfide B2S3 310   1.55 - - 800 - - - - Gr RF -
Cadmium Cd 321   8.64 64 120 180 P W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta Al2O3, Q DC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2 456   6.92 - - - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 721   6.21 - - - - - - - Q RF -
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567   5.19 - - ~300 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 568   4.05 - - ~400 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1100   6.64 - - ~500 - - - - - RF n = 1.56
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 387   5.67 - - ~250 - - - - - - -
Cadmium Oxide CdO >1500 D 6.95 - - ~530 - - - - - RF-R Disproportionates. n = 2.49
Cadmium Selenide CdSe >1350 S 5.81 - - 540 G Mo, Ta - - Al2O3, Q RF Evaporates easily. n = 2.4
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 1750 S 4.82 - - 550 F W, Mo, Ta - W Al2O3, Q RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate temperature. Stoichiometry variable. n = 2.51, 2.53
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1121   5.85 - - 450 - W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo - RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temperature. n~ 2.6
Calcium Ca 839 S 1.54 272 357 459 P W W W Al2O3, Q - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 1423   3.18 - - ~1100 - W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta Q RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.43
Calcium Oxide CaO 2614   ~3.3 - - ~1700 - W, Mo - - ZrO2 RF, RF-R Forms volatile oxides with tungsten and molybdenum. n = 1.84
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 1540   2.91 - - - G - - - Q RF n = 1.61, 1.66
Calcium Sulfide CaS - D 2.5 - - 1100 - Mo - - - RF Decomposes. n = 2.14
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 1975   4.10 1490 1600 1690 P - - - - RF Disproportionates except in sputtering. n = 2.34
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 -   6.06 - - - G W - - - RF n = 1.92
Carbon C ~3652 S 1.8-2.1 1657 1867 2137 Ex - - - - RF E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium Ce 798   ~6.70 970 1150 1380 G W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, BeO, VC DC, RF -
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1460   6.16 - - ~900 G W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n ~ 1.7
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 1692   6.86 - - - F W - - - - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"-0.020" tungsten boat. n = 1.95
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 ~2600   7.13 1890 2000 2310 G W - - - RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cesium Cs 28   1.88 -16 22 80 - SS - - Q - -
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636   3.04 - - ~400 - W - - - RF n = 1.70
Cesium Chloride CsCl 645   3.99 - - ~500 - W - - - RF n = 1.64
Cesium Fluoride CsF 682   4.12 - - ~500 - W - - - RF n = 1.48
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272   3.68 - - 550 - Pt - - - - -
Cesium Iodide CsI 626   4.51 - - ~500 - W - - Pt, Q RF n = 1.79
Chiolote Na5Al3F14 -   2.9 - - ~800 - Mo, W - - - RF n = 1.33
Chromium Cr 1857 S 7.20 837 977 1157 G ** W W VC RF, DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 2760(?)   6.17 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Chromium Bromide CrBr2 842   4.36 - - 550 - Incl - - - RF -
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1980   6.68 - - ~2000 F W - - - RF, DC -
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824   2.88 - - 550 - Fe, Incl - - - RF -
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2266   5.21 - - ~2000 G W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.n = 2.55
Chromium Silicide Cr3Si2 -   5.5 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO - S * * * * G W - W - DC, RF Flash.
Cobalt Co 1495   8.9 850 990 1200 Ex W, Nb - W Al2O3, BeO DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - 400 - Incl - - - RF -
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - 472 - Incl - - - RF -
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1795   6.45 - - - - - - - - DC-R, RF-R Sputter preferred.
Copper Cu 1083   8.92 727 857 1017 Ex Mo W W Al2O3, Mo, Ta DC, RF Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 430   4.14 - - ~600 - - - - - RF n = 1.93
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1235 S 6.0 - - ~600 G Ta - - Al2O3 DC-R, RF-R n = 2.71
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 1100   5.6 - - - - - - - - - -
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1000   2.9 1020 1260 1480 Ex W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta VC RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium Dy 1412   8.55 625 750 900 G Ta - - - RF, DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1360 S - - - ~800 G Ta - - - RF -
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2340   7.81 - - ~1400 - Ir - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium Er 1529 S 9.07 650 775 930 G W, Ta - - - DC, RF -
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1350   - - - ~750 - Mo - - - RF JVST. 1985;A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 Infus.   8.64 - - ~1600 - Ir - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium Eu 822 S 5.24 280 360 480 F W, Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC Low tantalum solubility.
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1380   6.50 - - ~950 - Mo - - - RF -
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 -   7.42 - - ~1600 G Ir, Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS -   5.75 - - - G - - - - RF -


* influenced by composition
** Cr-plated rod or strip
***All metals alumina coated
C = carbon
Gr = graphite
Q = quartz
Incl = Inconel
VC = vitreous carbon
SS = stainless steel
Ex = excellent
G = good
F = fair
P = poor
S = sublimes
D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective
RF-R = reactive
RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective
DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective

Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Thermal Sources
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Gadolinium Gd 1313   7.90 760 900 1175 Ex Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC High tantalum solubility.
Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 -   - - - 1500 - - - - C RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2330   7.41 - - - F Ir - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium Ga 30   5.90 619 742 907 G - - - Al2O3, BeO, Q - Alloys with refractory metals. Use E-beam gun.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 710   5.6 - - - F W, Ta - - - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1238   5.3 - - - G W, Ta - - C RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride GaN 800 S 6.1 - - ~200 - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporates gallium in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 1900   6.44 - - - - Pr, W - - - RF Loses oxygen. n = 1.92
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1540   4.1 - 770 920 - W, Ta - W Q RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge 937   5.35 812 957 1167 Ex W, C, Ta - - Q, Al2O3 DC, RF Excellent films from E-beam guns.
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - ~650 - - - - - RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO 710 S - - - 500 - - - - Q RF n = 1.61
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 1086   6.24 - - ~625 G Ta, Mo - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725   6.20 - - 381 - W, Mo - W Q, Al2O3 RF -
Glass, Schott 8329 - -   2.20 - - - Ex - - - - RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 1064   19.32 807 947 1132 Ex W W W*** Mo*** Al2O3, BN, VC, W DC, RF Films soft, not very adherent.
Hafnium Hf 2227   13.31 2160 2250 3090 G - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3250   10.5 - - - - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide HfC ~3890 S 12.20 - - ~2600 - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Nitride HfN 3305   - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2758   9.68 - - ~2500 F W - - - DC, RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1750   7.2 - - - - - - - - RF -
Holmium Ho 1474   8.80 650 770 950 G W, Ta W W - - -
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1143   - - - ~800 - - - - Q DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2370   8.41 - - - - Ir - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel Ni/Cr/Fe 1425   8.5 - - - G W W W - DC, RF Use fine wire wrapped on tungsten. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium In 157   7.30 487 597 742 Ex W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 DC, RF Wets tungsten and copper. Use molybdenum liner.
Indium Antimonide InSb 535   5.8 - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes; sputter preferred; or co-evaporate
Indium Arsenide InAs 943   5.7 780 870 970 - W - - - RF -
Indium Nitride InN 1200   7.0 - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (I) Oxide In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - 650 - - - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 850   7.18 - - ~1200 G W, Pt - - Al2O3 - -
Indium Phosphide InP 1070   4.8 - 630 730 - W, Ta - W, Ta Gr RF Deposits are phosphorus rich.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890   5.67 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources; flash.
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 653   5.87 - - 650 - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 692 S 5.18 - - 650 - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 1050 S 4.90 - - 850 - - - - Gr RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 696   6.29 - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 667   5.78 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3-SnO2 1800 S - - - - - - - - - - -
Iridium Ir 2410   22.42 1850 2080 2380 F - - - ThO2 DC, RF -
Iron Fe 1535   7.86 858 998 1180 Ex W W W Al2O3, BeO DC, RF Attacks tungsten. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron Bromide FeBr2 684 D 4.64 - - 561 - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Chloride FeCl2 670 S 3.16 - - 300 - - - - Fe RF n = 1.57
Iron Iodide FeI2 -   5.32 - - 400 - - - - Fe RF -
Iron (II) Oxide FeO 1369   5.7 - - - P - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred. n=2.32
Iron (III) Oxide Fe2O3 1565   5.24 - - - G W - W - - Disproportionates to Fe3O4 at 1530°C. n = 3.01
Iron Sulfide FeS 1193 D 4.74 - - - - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes.
Kanthal FeCrAl -   7.1 - - - - W W W - DC, RF -
Lanthanum La 921   6.15 990 1212 1388 Ex W, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2210 D 2.61 - - - G - - - - RF -
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 783   5.06 - - - - - - Ta - RF n=1.94. Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 1490 S ~6.0 - - 900 G Ta, Mo - Ta - RF No decomposition. n ~1.6
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 2307   6.51 - - 1400 G W, Ta - - - RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73
Lead Pb 328   11.34 342 427 497 Ex W, Mo W W, Ta Al2O3, Q DC, RF Toxic.
Lead Bromide PbBr2 373   6.66 - - ~300 - - - - - - -
Lead Chloride PbCl2 501   5.85 - - ~325 - Pt - - Al2O3 RF Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride PbF2 855 S 8.24 - - ~400 - W, Pt, Mo - - BeO RF n = 1.75
Lead Iodide PbI2 402   6.16 - - ~500 - Pt - - Q - -
Lead Oxide PbO 886   9.53 - - ~550 - Pt - - Q, Al2O3 RF-R No decomposition. n ~2.6
Lead Selenide PbSe 1065 S 8.10 - - ~500 - W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 RF -
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 1115   8.1 670 780 905 P Pt - Pt Al2O3 RF Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide PbS 1114 S 7.5 - - 500 - W - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF Little decomposition. n = 3.92
Lead Telluride PbTe 917   8.16 780 910 1050 - Mo, Pt, Ta - - Al2O3, Gr RF Vapors toxic. Deposits aretellurium rich. Sputtering preferred or co-evaporate from two sources.
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 -   7.52 - - - - Ta - - - RF -
Lithium Li 181   0.53 227 307 407 G Ta, SS - - Al2O3, BeO - Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide LiBr 550   3.46 - - ~500 - Ni - - - RF n = 1.78
Lithium Chloride LiCl 605   2.07 - - 400 - Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.66
Lithium Fluoride LiF 845   2.64 875 1020 1180 G Ni, Ta, Mo, W - - Al2O3 RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.39
Lithium Iodide LiI 449   4.08 - - 400 - Mo, W - - - RF n = 1.96
Lithium Oxide Li2O >1700   2.01 - - 850 - Pt, Ir - - - RF n = 1.64
Lutetium Lu 1663   9.84 - - 1300 Ex Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC -
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 -   9.42 - - 1400 - Ir - - - RF Decomposes.


* influenced by composition
** Cr-plated rod or strip
***All metals alumina coated
C = carbon
Gr = graphite
Q = quartz
Incl = Inconel
VC = vitreous carbon
SS = stainless steel
Ex = excellent
G = good
F = fair
P = poor
S = sublimes
D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective
RF-R = reactive
RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective
DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective

Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Thermal Sources
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Magnesium Mg 649 S 1.74 185 247 327 G W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W Al2O3, VC DC, RF Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 2135   3.6 - - - G - - - - RF Natural spinel. n = 1.72
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 700   3.72 - - ~450 - Ni - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 714   2.32 - - 400 - Ni - - - RF Decomposes. n = 1.67
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1261   2.9-3.2 - - 1000 Ex Mo, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Rate control and substrate heat important for optical films. Reacts with tungsten. Excellent with molybdenum. n = 1.38
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 <637 D 4.43 - - 200 - Ir - - - RF -
Magnesium Oxide MgO 2852   3.58 - - 1300 G - - - C, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3 Torr oxygen for stoichiometry. Tungsten gives volatile oxides. n~1.7
Manganese Mn 1244 S 7.20 507 572 647 G W, Ta, Mo W W Al2O3, BeO DC, RF -
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 - D 4.39 - - 500 - Incl - - - RF -
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 650   2.98 - - 450 - Incl - - - RF -
Manganese (III) Oxide Mn2O3 1080   4.50 - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (IV) Oxide MnO2 535   5.03 - - - P W - W - RF-R Loses oxygen at 535°C.
Manganese Sulfide MnS - D 3.99 - - 1300 - Mo - - - RF Decomposes. n = 2.70
Mercury Hg -39   13.55 -68 -42 -6 - - - - - - -
Mercury Sulfide HgS 584 S 8.10 - - 250 - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes. n = 2.85, 3.20
Molybdenum Mo 2610   10.2 1592 1822 2117 Ex - - - - DC, RF Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 2100   7.12 - - - P - - - - RF, DC -
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 2687   8.9 - - - F - - - - RF, DC Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Disulfide MoS2 1185   4.80 - - ~50 - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Oxide MoO3 795 S 4.69 - - ~900 - Mo, Pt - Mo Al2O3, BN RF Slight oxygen loss. n = 1.9
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 2050   6.31 - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes.
Neodymium Nd 1021   7.01 731 871 1062 Ex Ta - - Al2O3 DC, RF Low tantalum solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 1410   6.5 - - ~900 G Mo, W - Mo, Ta Al2O3 RF Very little decomposition. n = 1.6
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 ~1900   7.24 - - ~1400 G Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen, films clear. E-beam preferred. n = 1.79
Nichrome IV Ni/Cr 1395   8.50 847 987 1217 Ex *** W W, Ta Al2O3, VC, BeO DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals.
Nickel Ni 1455   8.90 927 1072 1262 Ex W W W Al2O3, BeO, VC DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals. Forms smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 963 S 5.10 - - 362 - Incl - - - RF -
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 1001 S 3.55 - - 444 - Incl - - - RF -
Nickel Oxide NiO 1984   6.67 - - ~1470 - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Dissociates on heating. n = 2.18
Niobium Nb 2468   8.57 1728 1977 2287 Ex W - - - DC, RF Attacks tungsten source. n = 1.80
Niobium Boride NbB2 2900(?)   6.97 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Niobium Carbide NbC 3500   7.6 - - - F - - - - RF, DC -
Niobium Nitride NbN 2573   8.4 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates niobium in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Niobium (II) Oxide NbO -   7.30 - - 1100 - Pt - - - RF -
Niobium (III) Oxide Nb2O3 1780   7.5 - - - - W - W - RF, DC, RF-R -
Niobium (V) Oxide Nb2O5 1485   4.47 - - - - W - W - RF, RF-R n = 1.95
Niobium Telluride NbTex -   7.6 - - - - - - - - RF Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn -   - - - - Ex - - - - RF, DC Co-evaporate from two sources.
Osmium Os 2700   22.48 2170 2430 2760 F - - - - DC, RF -
Osmium Oxide Os2O3 - D - - - - - - - - - - Deposits osmium in 10-3 Torr oxygen.
Palladium Pd 1554 S 12.02 842 992 1192 Ex W W W Al2O3, BeO DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals. Rapid evaporation suggested.
Palladium Oxide PdO 870   9.70 - - 575 - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes.
Parylene C8H8 300-400   1.1 - - - - - - - - - Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy Ni/Fe 1395   8.7 947 1047 1307 G W - - Al2O3, VC DC F, Film low in nickel.
Phosphorus P 44.1   1.82 327 361 402 - - - - Al2O3 - Material reacts violently in air. n = 2.14
Phosphorus Nitride P3N5 -   2.51 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Platinum Pt 1772   21.45 1292 1492 1747 Ex W W W C, ThO2 DC, RF Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum Oxide PtO2 450   10.2 - - - - - - - - RF-R -
Plutonium Pu 641   19.84 - - - - W - - - - Toxic, radioactive.
Polonium Po 254   9.4 117 170 244 - - - - Q - Radioactive.
Potassium K 63   0.86 23 60 125 - Mo - - Q - Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 734   2.75 - - ~450 - Ta, Mo - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.559
Potassium Chloride KCl 770 S 1.98 - - 510 G Ta, Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.49
Potassium Fluoride KF 858   2.48 - - ~500 - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.363
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 360   2.04 - - ~400 - Pt - - - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide KI 681   3.13 - - ~500 - Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.677
Praseodymium Pr 931   6.77 800 950 1150 G Ta - - - RF, DC -
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 - D 7.07 - - 1400 G Ir - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Radium Ra 700   5 (?) 246 320 416 - - - - - - -
Rhenium Re 3180   20.53 1928 2207 2571 P - - - - DC, RF Fine wire will self-evaporate.
Rhenium Oxide ReO3 - D ~7 - - - - - - - - RF Evaporate rhenium in 10-3 Torr
Rhodium Rh 1966   12.4 1277 1472 1707 G W W W ThO2, VC DC, RF E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium Rb 39   1.48 -3 37 111 - - - - Q DC, RF -
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 718   2.09 - - ~550 - - - - Q RF n = 1.493
Rubidium Iodide RbI 647   3.55 - - ~400 - - - - Q RF n = 1.647
Ruthenium Ru 2310   12.3 1780 1990 2260 P W - - - DC, RF -


* influenced by composition
** Cr-plated rod or strip
***All metals alumina coated
C = carbon
Gr = graphite
Q = quartz
Incl = Inconel
VC = vitreous carbon
SS = stainless steel
Ex = excellent
G = good
F = fair
P = poor
S = sublimes
D = decomposes
RF = RF sputtering is effective
RF-R = reactive
RF sputter is effective
DC = DC sputtering is effective
DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective

Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Thermal Sources
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Samarium Sm 1074   7.52 373 460 573 G Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC -
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 2350   8.35 - - - G Ir - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide Sm2S3 1900   5.73 - - - G - - - - - -
Scandium Sc 1541   2.99 714 837 1002 Ex W - - Al2O3, BeO RF Alloys with tantalum.
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 2300   3.86 - - ~400 F - - - - RF, RF-R -
Selenium Se 217   4.81 89 125 170 G W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Al2O3, VC RF, DC Toxic. Bad for vacuum systems.
Silicon Si 1410   2.32 992 1147 1337 F W, Ta - - BeO, Ta, VC DC, RF Alloys with tungsten; use heavy tungsten boat. SiO produced above 4 x 10-6 Torr. E-beam best.
Silicon Boride SiB6 -   - - - - P - - - - RF -
Silicon Carbide SiC ~2700 S, D 3.22 - - 1000 - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred. n = 2.654, 2.697
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 1900   3.44 - - ~800 - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Silicon (II) Oxide SiO >1702 S 2.13 - - 850 F Ta W W Ta RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate. n = 1.6
Silicon (IV) Oxide SiO2 1610   ~2.65 * * 1025* Ex - - - Al2O3 RF Quartz excellent in E-beam. n = 1.544, 1.553
Silicon Selenide SiSe -   - - - 550 - - - - Q RF -
Silicon Sulfide SiS 940 S 1.85 - - 450 - - - - Q RF n = 1.853
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 -   4.39 - - 550 - - - - Q RF -
Silver Ag 962   10.5 847 958 1105 Ex W Mo Ta, Mo Al2O3 W DC, RF
Silver Bromide AgBr 432 D 6.47 - - ~380 - Ta - - Q RF n = 2.253
Silver Chloride AgCl 455   5.56 - - ~520 - Mo, Pt - Mo Q RF n = 2.07
Silver Iodide AgI 558   6.01 - - ~500 - Ta - - - RF n = 2.21
Sodium Na 98   0.97 74 124 192 - Ta, SS - - Q - Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.n = 4.22
Sodium Bromide NaBr 747   3.20 - - ~400 - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.641
Sodium Chloride NaCl 801   2.17 - - 530 G Ta, W, Mo - - Q RF Copper oven, little decomposition.
Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.544
Sodium Cyanide NaCN 564   - - - ~550 - Ag - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.452
Sodium Fluoride NaF 993   2.56 - - ~1000 G Mo, Ta, W - - BeO RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition. n = 1.336
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 318   2.13 - - ~470 - Pt - - - - Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.358
Spinel MgO35Al2O3 -   8.0 - - - G - - - - RF n = 1.72
Strontium Sr 769   2.6 239 309 403 P W, Ta, Mo W W VC RF, DC Wets but does not alloy with refractory metals. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride SrCl2 875   3.05 - - - - - - - - - n = 1.650
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 1473   4.24 - - ~1000 - - - - Al2O3 RF n = 1.442
Strontium Oxide SrO 2430 S 4.7 - - 1500 - Mo - - Al2O3 RF Reacts with molybdenum and tungsten. n = 1.810
Strontium Sulfide SrS >2000   3.70 - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes. n = 2.107
Sulfur S8 113   2.07 13 19 57 P W - W Q - Bad for vacuum systems. n = 1.957
Supermalloy Ni/Fe/Mo 1410   8.9 - - - G - - - - RF, DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources, permalloy and molybdenum.
Tantalum Ta 2996   16.6 1960 2240 2590 Ex - - - - DC, RF Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride TaB2 3000(?)   11.15 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Tantalum Carbide TaC 3880   13.9 - - ~2500 - - - - - RF, DC -
Tantalum Nitride TaN 3360   16.30 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC Evaporates tantalum in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 1872   8.2 1550 1780 1920 G Ta W W VC RF, RF-R Slight decomposition.Evaporates in 10-3 Torr oxygen. n = 2.6
Tantalum Sulfide TaS2 >1300   - - - - - - - - - RF -
Technetium Tc 2200   11.5 1570 1800 2090 - - - - - - -
PTFE PTFE 330   2.9 - - - - W - - - RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Tellurium Te 452   6.25 157 207 277 P W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, Q RF Toxic. Wets without alloying. n =1.002
Terbium Tb 1356   8.23 800 950 1150 Ex Ta - - Al2O3 RF -
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 1172   - - - ~800 - - - - - RF -
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 2387   7.87 - - 1300 - Ir - - - RF Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide Tb4O7 - D - - - - - Ta - - - RF Films TbO.
Thallium Tl 304   11.85 280 360 470 P W, Ta - W Al2O3, Q DC Very toxic. Wets freely.
Thallium Bromide TlBr 480 S 7.56 - - ~250 - Ta - - Q RF Toxic. n = 2.4 - 2.8
Thallium Chloride TlCl 430 S 7.00 - - ~150 - Ta - - Q RF n = 2.247
Thallium Iodide TlI 440 S 7.1 - - ~250 - - - - Q RF n = 2.78
Thallium Oxide Tl2O2 717   10.19 - - 350 - - - - - RF Disproportionates at 850°C to Tl2O.
Thorium Th 1875   11.7 1430 1660 1925 Ex W, Ta,Mo W W - - Toxic, radioactive.
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 610 S 5.67 - - - - Mo - - - - Toxic. n=2.47
Thorium Carbide ThC2 2655   8.96 - - ~2300 - - - - C RF, DC Radioactive.
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 >900   6.32 - - ~750 F Mo - W VC RF Radioactive.
Thorium Oxide ThO2 3220   9.86 - - ~2100 G W - - - RF, RF-R Radioactive.
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 900   9.1 - - - - Mo, Ta - - - - Radioactive. n = 1.52
Thorium Sulfide ThS2 1925   7.30 - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from two sources.
Thulium Tm 1545 S 9.32 461 554 680 G Ta - - Al2O3 DC -
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 -   8.90 - - 1500 - Ir - - - RF Decomposes.
Tin Sn 232   7.28 682 807 997 Ex Mo W W Al2O3 DC, RF Wets molybdenum. Use tantalum liner in E-beam guns.
Tin Oxide SnO2 1630 S 6.95 - - ~1000 Ex W W W Q, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Films from tungsten are oxygen deficient, oxidize in air. n = 2.0
Tin Selenide SnSe 861   6.18 - - ~400 G - - - Q RF -
Tin Sulfide SnS 882   5.22 - - ~450 - - - - Q RF -
Tin Telluride SnTe 780 D 6.48 - - ~450 - - - - Q RF -
Titanium Ti 1660   4.5 1067 1235 1453 Ex W - - TiC DC, RF Alloys with refractory metals; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium Boride TiB2 2900   4.50 - - - P - - - - RF, DC -
Titanium Carbide TiC 3140   4.93 - - ~2300 - - - - - RF, DC -
Titanium Nitride TiN 2930   5.22 - - - G Mo - - - RF, RF-R, DC Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Titanium (II) Oxide TiO 1750   4.93 - - ~1500 G W, Mo - - VC RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 2.2
Titanium (III) Oxide Ti2O3 2130 D 4.6 - - - G W - - - RF Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide TiO2 1830   4.26 - - ~1300 F W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Tantalum reduces TiO2 to TiO and titanium. n = 2.616, 2.903
Tungsten W 3410   19.35 2117 2407 2757 G - - - - RF, DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 ~2900   10.77 - - - P - - - - RF -
Tungsten Carbide W2C 2860   17.15 1480 1720 2120 Ex C - - - RF, DC -
Tungsten Disulfide WS2 1250 D 7.5 - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Oxide WO3 1473 S 7.16 - - 980 G W, Pt - - - RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. Tungsten reduces oxide slightly. n = 1.68
Tungsten Selenide WSe2 -   9.0 - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Silicide WSi2 >900   9.4 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Tungsten Telluride WTe3 -   9.49 - - - - - - - Q RF -
Uranium U 1132   19.05 1132 1327 1582 G Mo, W W W - - Films oxidize.
Uranium Carbide UC2 2350   11.28 - - 2100 - - - - C RF Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride UF4 960   6.70 - - 300 - Ni - - - RF -
Uranium (III) Oxide U2O3 1300 D 8.30 - - - - W - W - RF-R Disproportionates at 1300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide UO2 2878   10.96 - - - - W - W - RF Tantalum causes decomposition.
Uranium Phosphide UP2 -   8.57 - - 1200 - Ta - - - RF Decomposes.
Uranium (II) Sulfide US >2000   10.87 - - - - - - - - - -
Uranium (IV) Sulfide US2 >1100   7.96 - - - - W - - - RF Slight decomposition.
Vanadium V 1890   5.96 1162 1332 1547 Ex W, Mo - - - DC, RF Wets molybdenum. E-beam-evaporated films preferred. n = 3.03
Vanadium Boride VB2 2400   5.10 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -
Vanadium Carbide VC 2810   5.77 - - ~1800 - - - - - RF, DC -
Vanadium Nitride VN 2320   6.13 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC -
Vanadium (IV) Oxide VO2 1967 S 4.34 - - ~575 - - - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide V2O5 690 D 3.36 - - ~500 - - - - Q RF n = 1.46, 1.52, 1.76
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 1700   4.42 - - - - - - - - RF -
Ytterbium Yb 819 S 6.96 520 590 690 G Ta - - - DC, RF -
Ytterbium Fluoride YbF3 1157   - - - ~800 - Mo - - - RF -
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 2346 S 9.17 - - ~1500 - Ir - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Yttrium Y 1522   4.47 830 973 1157 Ex W, Ta W W Al2O3 RF, DC High tantalum solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 1990   - - - - G - W W - RF Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 1387   4.01 - - - - - - - - RF -
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 2410   5.01 - - ~2000 G W - - C RF, RF-R Loses oxygen, films smooth and clear. n = 1.79
Zinc Zn 420   7.14 127 177 250 Ex Mo, W, Ta W W Al2O3, Q DC, RF Evaporates well under wide range ofconditions.
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 570   6.33 - - - - - - - - RF -
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 394   4.20 - - ~300 - W - - C RF Decomposes. n= 1.545
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 872   4.95 - - ~800 - Pt, Ta - - Q RF -
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 -   6.22 - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide ZnO 1975   5.61 - - ~1800 F - - - - RF-R n = 2.008, 2.029
Zinc Selenide ZnSe >1100   5.42 - - 660 - Ta, W, Mo W,Mo W, Mo Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well. n = 2.89
Zinc Sulfide ZnS 1700 S 3.98 - - ~800 G Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. Sticking coefficient varies with substrate temperature. n =2.356
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 1239   6.34 - - ~600 - Mo, Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 3.56
Zirconium Zr 1852   6.49 1477 1702 1987 Ex W - - - RF, DC Alloys with tungsten. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 ~3200   6.09 - - - G - - - - RF, DC -
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 3540   6.73 - - ~2500 - - - - - RF, DC -
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 2980   7.09 - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R, DC Reactively evaporates in 10-3 Torr nitrogen.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 ~2700   5.89 - - ~2200 G W - - - RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard. n = 2.13, 2.19, 2.20
Zirconium Silicate ZrSiO4 2550   4.56 - - - - - - - - RF n = 1.92 - 1.96; 1.97 - 2.02
Zirconium Silicide ZrSi2 1700   4.88 - - - - - - - - RF, DC -